Today, Turkey is a leader country in medical tourism for international patients who seek oncological treatment. Oncology and nuclear medicine treatment in Turkey is definitely the main focus of medical tourism also. Due to modern technologies, it possible to conduct painless and safe surgical interventions to eliminate tumors of various sizes and classes and to carry out effective treatment of cancer. Prof. Dr. Berrin Pehlivan tolked about the medical developments in lip cancer.
Lip cancer is a type of head and neck cancer, which is started with occurrence of cancer cells, it can appear on upper or lower lip. This cancer type is part of oral cancer, mainly show itself on the lower lip, in general squamous cell type carcinomas are seen in patient cases. With this structure, it is thought that cancer arises in flat and thin cells called squamous located in the middle and outer layers of the skin.
Risk factors are ultraviolet lights and tobacco usage. People can eliminate the risk by protecting themselves, treatment is done with surgery, lip cancer has smaller volume and make it possible to have good aesthetic results as well, in cases with greater volume, doctors planning more comprehensive surgery approaches.
Types of lip cancers
In the types of lip cancer most common is one that appears on epithelial layer of lips, squamous cell carcinoma. This type cancer also called as epidermoid, is seen in mouth, larynx and throat. The other type lip cancer is appear from microscopic glands that causes adenoid cystic cancer and mukoepidermoid cancer, and cancer that caused by melanoma cells cancerogenesis. In rare cases cancer tumors may appear in the venous and ligaments existed in lip structure.
What are the causes of the cancer?
There is no scientific evidences of what causes the lip cancer exactly, cancer cells occurs when cell DNA started to have mutations. Cell DNA is the main center of management due to carrying important information. Genetic changes lead to uncontrolled multiplication and growing of cells. In this point cancer structure start to invasion of healthy tissues. These cells start to grow and become tumors that threats healthy tissues. Ultraviolet lights have negative effects and can lead to the lip cancer for people who have lip cancer risks. Solarium is the other factor that people with genetic risks can affected with ultraviolet lights.
How lip cancer occurs?
Medical authorities says that lip cancer can occur with the reason of mutation changes triggered by sun lights. The general opinion is that cancer occurs due to DNA mutations that occur in cells. Cells start to grow and become tumors. Risk factors are tobacco usage, white skin, ultraviolet lights, immunative misbalances.
What are symptoms of cancer?
Lip color changes, slightly swellings of lip, unhealed scars, skin tingling, pain or numbness. If you have these symptoms, you should consulate to your doctor. Many of different structures on the lips can be referred as symptoms. Crusting, itching sensation, bleeding, and red dots are specifications that must be taken seriously. Similar to herpes occurrences that not healing and this is another factor to consulate to a doctor.
There are physical, biological and visual examination methods to check if you have any cancer signs. Physical examination will be the first step to identify is the patient have any of signs, and to prepare the other examination factors.
Biopsy is used to take scope of tissue to identify any pathologic identities and describe which kind of pathology and if cancer, which type of cancer patient has. MR and CT used to identify if the cancer spread to other oral areas.
Can lip cancer be prevented?
People who have any of differentiation signs suggested to be consulted to a doctor.
Surgical methods of treatment extract the cancer tissue and reconstruct the lip to be functional, surgical procedure uses preventive techniques to leave less scar. If the cancer has big volume, surgery must be done by a professional aesthetic surgeon who specialised in reconstructive surgeries. In cases when the cancer spread, other tissues can be extracted as well, and may be replaced by biological graft taken from other suitable body parts.
Radiotherapy is also applied to treat the lip cancer, radiation therapy can be applied after surgery or solely. In cases when surgical option is not suitable, patient can prefer to be treated with radiotherapy. In cases when lenf nodes are affected by cancer, radiotherapy can be combined with chemotherapy. In cases of squamous cell cancer, cisplatin based chemotherapy given with radiotherapy. Latest immunotherapies and smart drugs can be used in treatment, patients can have detailed molecular genetic test to see if this options are available.
Is lip cancer has high risk of mortality?
In early stages of lip cancer, it can be treated both with the surgical, radiotherapy and other medical methods. However, in advanced stages radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical treatments can decrease life quality, and respond to treatments can be low. Post treatment period is harsh, but it must be kept in mind that this illness is treatable. Most important is early diagnosis.